On the planet orbiting the black hole, life can exist. This is the conclusion of Czech physicists who have published their research on the website arXiv.org. Briefly the essence of the work lays out the publication New Scientist. “Ribbon.ru” tells details of research scholars on the possibility of life near black holes.
Gravitational object can be friendlier than expected. Planet orbiting a black hole, like Miller out of a science fiction film directed Christopher Nolan’s “interstellar” could sustain life. At least it does not contradict the second law of thermodynamics.
It determines the direction of physical processes. In particular, as shown by German physicist Rudolf Clausius, makes it impossible for a spontaneous transfer (i.e., without doing work) of heat from a colder body more hot or that it is essentially the same, the reduction in the entropy (measure of disorder) of an isolated system.
According to the second law of thermodynamics, to sustain life, you need a temperature difference, which will provide a source of useful energy. Life on Earth requires such a source, the role played by the temperature difference between the hot Sun and cold airless space.
In his article Czech physicists have wondered what would happen if the energy source will serve as the temperature difference between the cold black hole and cosmic background radiation. Despite its name the black holes lead to the formation of some of the brightest and hottest objects in the Universe.
This is due to the presence of an accretion disk consisting of heated matter rotating around a black hole and absorbed by it. This leads to a powerful radiation, which can register the Observatory. However, the temperature of the (extremal) black hole is zero Kelvin (not counting the non-zero temperature of the Hawking radiation).
For the planet the black hole in this case can act as cold light. Gravity itself is the object being, according to scientists, should be old enough not to have in its surroundings the wreckage of stars and other celestial bodies that would threaten the existence of the exotic life on the planet.
Compared to the old and cold black hole, the surrounding space has a temperature of 2.7 Kelvin that meets the cosmic microwave background radiation and of thermal radiation which is encountered in the Universe 380 thousand years after the Big Bang, the transition of matter from plasma to gaseous state.
Czech scientists estimate that earth-like planet orbiting a black hole, due to the difference in temperature between the object and the gravitational cosmic background radiation can remove about 900 watts of useful power. This is enough to sustain life, but little for its origin.
As noted AVI Loeb of Harvard University, before the temperature of the background radiation was higher than it is now. For example, after 15 million years after the Big Bang, it was equal to 300 Kelvin (27 degrees Celsius). This is sufficient for existence on a hypothetical planet with liquid water and ensure its 130 gigawatts of electrical power.
The latter is a million times less power that the Sun provides the Earth. This is sufficient to maintain the existence of complex life on the planet, although it is unlikely that she managed to evolve in such a short period of time. To check their calculations Czech scientists have appealed to Miller from “Interstellar”.
In the film Miller’s planet revolves around the supermassive black hole Gargantua mass of 100 million suns, remote from Earth at 10 billion light years. The radius of the hole is comparable to the radius of the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, and the surrounding accretion disk would extend beyond the orbit of Mars.
Because of the strong gravitational field of a black hole, one hour spent on the planet the Miller, is equal to seven years on Earth, that is the time it flows in 60 thousand times slower than on the Blue planet. The energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency, which increases in the same number of times in which time slows down.
This leads to the fact that Miller will be preheated to 900 degrees Celsius, although in the film the planet is covered by ocean. The role of fluid in it fits the aluminum, not the water. Conditions on Miller would have been better if the planet was located further away from Gargantua, and the slowing of time for it would not be so strong.
The conclusions of Czechs agree with Lawrence Krauss from Arizona state University, and Loeb emphasizes that his theory of a cold sun and the hot sky to sustain life does not contradict science, but in practice it maloosuŝestvimym. What will happen with humans, when the Sun will end and existence will become a white dwarf?
After a hundred trillion years, bright stars die and the Universe will be only black holes. Intelligent creatures will attempt to draw energy from radiation of the accretion disk of a black hole, not from the mechanism of łeba. “When the stars disappear, the black holes will be the last source of energy in the Universe,” says Krauss.