Aging and bad habits weaken the body and allow cancer to defeat the healthy tissues — that is, not mutation of genes is the main reason for the formation of malignant tumors. The scientists said the Department of science “Газеты.Ru” how to beat cancer and why the cells in our body can be compared with dinosaurs.
The first in the history of mankind of description of malignant tumors were made by the ancient Egyptians, and the term used to denote disease — cancer — suggested the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. The first surgery to remove the cancers was carried out from about first century BC.
However, despite all attempts to diagnose and control the disease, for many centuries, they remained unsuccessful. Only in the late XVIII century there were clear and detailed “instructions” on removing different types of cancerous tumors.
A detailed study of malignant tumors was possible only with the introduction of improved microscopes and the development of pathological anatomy in the second half of the nineteenth century.
At the beginning of the last century doctors approached the understanding of the processes that cause cancer, was discovered the viral nature of some sarcomas, identified the carcinogenic effect of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation, began the study of the influence of environmental factors and lifestyle. At the moment, generally accepted in scientific circles the theory of the formation of cancer is a mutational theory of carcinogenesis. According to this hypothesis, the cause of malignant tumors become mutations accumulated in the genome of the cell. Proof of the mutation theory of carcinogenesis is considered to be the discovery of special cells called proto — oncogenes and genes-suppressors.
In order to understand what are these cells and how they relate to cancer formation, it is necessary to remember that the vast majority of cases, malignant tumor occurs only from one cell with a mutated genome. At the moment scientists know of several tens of genes, which upon mutation begin to produce cancer-causing proteins.